Der Schmerz der Palästinenser und ihre Verantwortung – von Shlomo Avineri

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Die Versuche von Seiten der extremen Rechten in Israel, den arabischen Bürgern des Landes zu verbieten, der Nakba zu gedenken, sind bösartig, töricht und zum Scheitern verurteilt. Allerdings sind auch die Initiativen der extremen Linken, die darauf abzielen, den Nakba-Tag zu einem gemeinsamen Gedenktag aller Bürger Israels zu machen, zum Scheitern verurteilt. Israel ist kein binationaler Staat, und bei aller Liberalität und Humanität, ist es schwer, Sieg und Niederlage auf gleiche Weise zu behandeln. Was von der jüdischen Mehrheit gefordert werden kann, ist, der Trauer der Palästinenser respektvoll zu begegnen.
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Das Hindernis, das bislang jedem ernsthaften Versuch in dieser Richtung im Wege gestanden hat, ist die Art und Weise, in der die Nakba im palästinensischen Narrativ dargestellt wird. Liberale Israelis müssen aufrichtig genug sein, sich gerade auch mit dieser Frage auseinanderzusetzen.

Erstens, ist der bloße Begriff „Nakba“, dessen arabische Bedeutung am ehesten „Unglück“ ist – als ob von einer Naturkatastrophe die Rede wäre und nicht vom Ergebnis menschlichen Handelns -, ein Ausweichen vor dem historischen Kontext der Ereignisse. Die „Nakba“ war kein Unglück; sie war das Ergebnis einer militärischen und politischen Niederlage, die von politischen Entscheidungen herrührt, für die es Verantwortliche gab.

Zweitens, hört man – wenngleich innerhalb der arabischen Welt im Allgemeinen und bei den Palästinensern im Besonderen wenig Neigung besteht, sich mit der Shoah zu beschäftigen – mitunter Vergleiche zwischen der Nakba und der Shoah. Dieser Vergleich beruht auf moralischer Abstumpfung: Was den Palästinensern 1947-48 widerfuhr, war das Ergebnis eines Krieges, in dem sie besiegt wurden. Die Shoah war ein systematisch geplanter Massenmord. Die sechs Millionen in der Shoah ermordeten europäischen Juden waren nicht gegen Deutschland in den Krieg gezogen. Die deutschen Juden waren gerade gute deutsche Patrioten, und ein beträchtlicher Teil der osteuropäischen Juden sah in der deutschen Kultur den Gipfel der europäischen Kultur.

Drittens, und dies ist die Hauptsache: Der palästinensische Diskurs setzt sich nicht mit der Tatsache auseinander, dass es arabische politische Entscheidungen waren, die das schlimme Unglück über die palästinensische Öffentlichkeit brachten. Es gibt Hunderte, wenn nicht Tausende von Artikeln und Büchern auf Arabisch, die sich mit dem Krieg von 1948 beschäftigen, und es gibt lehrreiche Analysen zu den Gründen der militärischen Niederlage. Aber bis heute besteht nicht die Bereitschaft dazu, sich mit der einen schlichten Tatsache auseinanderzusetzen: Die Entscheidung, gegen die Teilungsresolution der UNO in den Krieg zu ziehen, war ein schlimmer politischer und moralischer Fehler der arabischen Welt.

Hätten die Palästinenser und die arabischen Staaten den Teilungsbeschluss akzeptiert, wäre Palästina schon seit 1948 ein unabhängiger Staat, und das Problem der Flüchtlinge hätte nie existiert. Nicht die Gründung des Staates Israel schuf das Flüchtlingsproblem, sondern der Krieg der Araber gegen die Gründung des jüdischen Staates in einem Teil des Landes Israel.

Den Israelis, die nach Versöhnung streben, muss es erlaubt sein, von der arabischen Seite zu fordern, dass sie sich diesen Fragen stellt. So wie es unmöglich ist, die Vertreibung von zwölf Millionen Volksdeutschen aus Osteuropa nach 1945 vom deutschen Überfall auf Polen 1939 abzukoppeln, so unmöglich ist es, von der moralischen Dimension der arabischen Entscheidung, Krieg gegen die Idee der Teilung zu führen, abzusehen: Wenn man in den Krieg zieht und ihn verliert, dann bringt dies Ergebnisse mit sich, selbst wenn man den Sieger nicht von der Verantwortung für seine Taten freisprechen kann.

Wenn wir uns also auf eine Zwei-Staaten-Lösung zubewegen, kann man von der arabischen Seite ein gewisses Maß an Selbstkritik erwarten – etwa in der Art, wie sie S. Yizhars Buch „Hirbet Hizah“ im israelischen Diskurs symbolisiert. Dies würde es den Israelis erheblich erleichtern, Anteil am Schmerz der Palästinenser zu nehmen.

Die Knospen der demokratischen Entwicklung in der arabischen Welt müssen die Hoffnung wecken, dass eines der Ergebnisse dessen, was auf dem Tahrir-Platz vor sich gegangen ist, ein kritischer Diskurs sein wird – der Beginn der Befreiung auch vom Unvermögen, einen kritischen Blick in den Spiegel zu werfen.

(14.05.011 Shlomo Avineri ist Emeritus für Politische Wissenschaften an der Hebräischen Universität Jerusalem.)

Mehr Informationen über biblische Wahrheiten im Geschäftsleben finden Sie in dem Buch/eBook von Autor Uwe Melzer mit dem Titel: 50 biblische Erfolgsgrundlagen im Geschäftsleben. Dieses Buch/eBook ist erschienen im epubli-Verlag unter ISBN: 978-3-8442-0365-3.


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